Tuesday, June 22, 2010

History of Melayu-Campa

Campa, according to the literature of China named Lin Yi, who appeared in 192 AD, is located in the middle portion of Vietnam country today, between the Gate of Annam (Hoanh Son) Donnai River in the north and south. Lin Yi population Cam speaking in the language of the Austronesian family. Since the beginning of Lin Yi is the Chinese domestic submission and pay tribute to him. The name "Campa" is called (and used) the first time in two inscriptions in Sanskrit, the only bertarikh 658 that existed in the central part of Vietnam and one in 668 found in Cambodia. Kelapan century, a royal summit Campa, marked with the vastness of its territory and the progress of civilization. In this period Campa is a royal alliance consisting of the five kingdoms country: Indrapura, Amarawati, Vijaya, Kauthara and Panduranga, which each country's monarchy has pentadbiran an autonomous individual, with the mother country Indrapura (Quang Nam is now).

Campa Kingdom have diplomatic relations with the royal kin and neighbors. With China and Vietnam in the north, Cambodia to the west and south of the archipelago. Campa regularly sent emissaries and delegations as well as holding religious and economic ties with China. Teaching of religion in society Campa kelapan and ninth century Mahayana Buddhism which is up to the Campa through sami who came from China. Relations with the Archipelago began when there was a massive rompakan by the Javanese in late kelapan century. And the relationship to be better in the form of trade relations and friendship

In the ninth century occurred Campa orientation transition from China to India. Starting today Campa civilization including the social system, religion and so forth, influenced by the Hindu Indian Culture and Buddhism. In 939 came a new power in the region namely Dai Viet (later Vietnam), and starts since it happened that a prolonged war between Vietnam and Campa, and the Vietnamese managed to destroy 982 Indrapura royal mother, and the king of Campa moved further south to Vijaya ie (Binh Dinh now), even in 1044 the Dai Viet (Vietnam) succeeded in occupying the town and killed its king Vijaya. Various efforts have made kings Campa for revenge and attacked Vietnam, but the reality on every attack, it can enlarge the Vietnamese territory and annexed Campa. Campa kingdom ever again in glory in a short time, when ruled by Che Bong Nga (1360-1390), because he tried to return the seized territory of Vietnam, and he ruled with a fair and glorious fight against pirate.

In 1471 King Le Thanh Tong, Vietnamese attack on a large scale Campa, and the Vijaya destroyed, killing over 40 000 inhabitants, expelled more than 30,000 others from the earth Campa, and even destroy whatever remains of the culture that influenced Campa Hindu / Buddhist, and then replace it with the culture of Chinese / Vietnamese. With the victory of Le Thanh Tong in 1471, then a history of the Kingdom Campa tamatlah northern hemisphere, especially Indrapura, Amarawati and Vijaya.

Later that survive are the remnants of the southern hemisphere empire Kauthara Campa and Panduranga are diperintahi by Bo Tri Tri and his successors. Campa kingdom began to accept the Islamic culture and Malays who came in through the port of Panduranga and Kauthara, and improve relations with the Malays and the Archipelago of land, the king reportedly named Po Klau Campa Halu (1579-1603) had converted to Islam, even brought his army to assist the Sultan of Johor in Semnenanjung Tanah Melayu to oppose the Portuguese in Malacca in 1511.

Unfortunately once again the king of Vietnam Nguyen Kauthara conquest (1659) and Panduranga (1697). CEI Po King last Panduranga Brei displaced from his land with thousands of followers toward Damrei Rong in Cambodia. In 1832, Lord of Vietnam Minh Menh do overkill on the last remnant population Panduranga Campa, seized all their fields, and enter the territory became part of Vietnam Panduranga. And it marks the final disappearance of Time Kingdom Campa of the map of the earth for eternity, even though the cultural and ethnic Campa still continues but the evacuation was already in Cambodia.

The presence of Campa and Malays in Cambodia

As described earlier, Campa busy people who leave their homelands because of pressure Nam tien or the movement of the people of Vietnam to the south. To save themselves they fled to Cambodia. In Cambodia, they met with a group of Malays who came from the Archipelago. Acculturation occurs because of religious equality, and the Austronesian language family, into a new society called the Melayu-Campa or JVA-Cam.

Malays community presence in Cambodia began several centuries earlier. Khmer Sources said that in the seventh century, the JVA has occupied some areas the Khmer who came as traders, sailors and marine soldiers.

During the 15th century world of relationships Malays and Cambodia increased from the economic and religious. Noisy traders and spreaders religion arrived in Cambodia. According to sources in Cambodia Malays, most Malays from Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Singapore, Trenggano and Patani. Even for a certain time chairmen Malays have been cooperating and helping each other with the Khmer kings.

Migration wave Campa society in Cambodia is after 1471 when Vietnam occupied Vijaya, the next wave after 1697 when Vietnam occupied Panduranga, and last because of the extraordinary ordeal in 1832. Campa Migration valid because Vietnanm escape destruction, while the migration of Malays of the archipelago occur because of trade and the spread of Islam. And two different ethnic origins are united in one religion namely Islam in a foreign country named Kampuchea. Both these rates because the fate of the equation, and religious equality, cooperation and mixed so that eventually gave birth to a new ethnic-Malays called Campa. By Khmer rulers of this society Campa Malays are welcome to stay in the territory Oudong (Khmer nregara mother at the time), the region Thbaung Khmum, Stung Trang and regions compote, Battambang and Kampong Luong today.

Community-Campa Malays form a special community that are recognized as "Cam-JVA". The word "JVA" derives from the word "Java" which is interpreted as all societies Cambodia society Malays from any origin. Perhaps they came from Java, Sumatra or elsewhere in the country and the Patani Malays Peninsula Land. The term "cam" refers to a resident who comes from an Campa kingdom in ancient times is situated in the middle of Vietnam today. Because both the community and Cam Malays embraced Islam and classified in the Austronesian linguistic group, the Khmer people classify them to the group of "Cam-JVA" or "Malayo-Campa."

In the year 1874 the population numbered 25 599 Malayo-Cam people. Ten percent of the population of Phnom Penh is a Malayo-Cam. In residential areas, Malayo-Campa we meet many Mosque and the mosque, as well as a place of religious education. Most Malays-Campa worked as cultivators, fishermen, cattle ranchers and peniaga reliable, humble as a party stooge other kingdoms from the village peringakat chumtup employees, mekhum, mesrok and chaway srok, there was also a humble even as the army and hold political office .

Proving that the Malays overall community-Cam has really feel Cambodia as a country by its own people, without exception, and has given his loyalty to Cambodia, including when the colonial French. Instead the government does not consider the Khmer-Cam Malays as immigrants and foreigners, but citizens are not indigenous, such as many other citizens.

Cambodia's independence from colonial France on 9 November 1953, under the head of state Norodom Sihanouk. But unfortunately people are not mentioned Malayo-Cam from the ethnic angle, ie the ethnic Malays-Cam, but called Khmer Islam, that popularized the term up to today.

Later minoriti groups are protected in the region Pays du Sud Montagards (PMS) that merangkumi Kontum, Pleiku, Ban Methuot, Djing and contained Dalat in South Vietnam, people considered to be entirely abolished and Vietnam. The same was experienced by the remnants minoriti Cam of Vietnam and the Khmer Krom (Khmer community living in South Vietnam). Therefore, community-Cam Malays in Cambodia tried to fight with the people of STDs in Vietnam and the Khmer Krom people, forming the so-called commitment FULRO (Front de Lutte des Races Unifie Oprimees or races Liberation Front Oppressed). FULRO combined merangkumi Front de Liberation du Champa (Campa Liberation Front), Front de Liberation du Kampuchea Krom (Kampuchea Krom Liberation Front) and the Front de Liberation du Nord Cambodia (Kampuchea Liberation Front North).

Expert FULRO power positions consist of President Chau Dara and two Naib President: Y. Bham Enoul (a parade of the Ban Methuot) and Po Nagar (a soldier who came from Kompong Kapuchea Cam, who identified with Islam among Les Kosem). Les Kosem a parachute jump Kapuchea army, which in 1970 was appointed general, he was a leader of the influential Mulayu-Cam in the armed forces and the Khmer politics. During the Lon Nol government, the fate of the Malayo-Cam somewhat better, because trust and various positions are given in the Malayo-Cam and FULRO. Les Kosem menyelesaiukan appointed a mediator in the internal conflicts Kapuchea Muslims and representatives to various Muslim countries. But after the fall of Cambodia into the hands of the Khmer Rouge, Les Kosem fled to Malaysia and died in Kuala Lumpur in 1976.

During the Pol Pot regime of the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979), Cambodia thousands of people have been killed because diseksa and believed in cooperation with the Lon Nol regime and for reasons of religion. As it is known that the Khmer Rouge are adherents of the radical teachings of Communism, and stymie freedom of religion. Cam-Malays who are Muslims feel the suffering of extremely heavy. Community Malayo-Cam and the Khmer Islam was forced to leave their religious traditions, names that have connotations of Islam, removed, Mosques and madrasas are not enabled or reduced in number, other religious customs abolished. Al-Qur'an and other religious readings destroyed. Culture in the form aktifiti-aktifiti, clothing, food and other Islamic accessories obliterated, including the names and religious mat.

On April 17, 1975, special forces, called the Khmer Rouge Angkar, has conducted sweeping searches and followed the torture of anyone they suspect after Lon Nol. On May 20, 1975, Pol Pot has been doing social discrimination based on political and religious choices, so that there are only two choices: "take or reject the Pol Pot Pol Pot." They are considered to reject the fate of Pol Pot's never happened in human history, namely large-scale massacres.

It is estimated that between one and three million people have been killed or died from lack of food, a million of them are Malays-Campa. And approximately six million others suffered severe trauma because of the fear that is very heavy. Muslims because of ideological and religious reasons and are "immigrants" are people suffering the most, they are forced apart by the fellow Muslims, or banished to the woods and mountains or for those who could have fled to the Foreign Affairs, most fled to Kelantan (Malaysia), Vietnam and Thailand as well as western countries.

Although Kher Rouge ruled only for four years, but the effect of cultural aspects, many Khmer people-Camp of Islam and Malays who already do not know his religion, not good at Arabic literacy and Campa. Pol Pot managed to scrape up and Go-Islamic identity of the Malays Campa Campa.

It was only after the fall of Pol Pot's regime and was ruled by Hun Sen and King Sihanouk, the community of Islam Melayu-Cam/Khmer back to feeling a little religious freedom. Mosques have started to be used again as well as madrassas. Islamic society is placed under the council that consists of six people appointed by the king. Cambodia Islamic Majlis (Maik) led by a Changvang (mufti), now held by Uztadz Yusof Kamarudin, assisted by two Assistant Mufti (now Uztadz Kadir Yusof and Uztadz Arsyad), equipped with a three-person Advisory (now YB Math Ly, YB Toll YB Loh and Ismail Osman). In each village there is a spiritual leader Hakim title. In the area of Trea (Kompong Cham) been formed Madrasa schools Hafiz al-Qur'an, followed Dubai Schools in MI 9 Pnomh Penh, Darul Aitam in Pochentong, Umm al-Kura in Chrouy Serkolah Metrei. Temple c. Rohimah Tambichik Madrasa in Nohor Ban and al-Muhammady Ma'had in Pruol Beng. Actually before Kher Rouge regime ruled Cambodia, many students continue their studies in Malaysia Cambodia, South Thailand, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

Currently solidarity of the international Islamic bodies, and Muslims among the nation has emerged, because the fate of Muslims in Cambodia are so pathetic. Natural Rabithah Islami in Mecca, the Conference of Islamic Countries (OIC) and others have been aware
channeling of assistance, ranging from sending manuscripts to aid Al-Quran Mosque rehabilitation and advocate (defense), the fate of the Muslims. Religious institutions, such as Jema'ah Tabligh and Darul Arqam and the Regional Islamic Da'wah Council of South East Asia And Pacific (RISEAP) from Malaysia to bring teachers and preachers / scholars as well as doing various requests silaturrahmi. Currently the village has been confirmed as 320 pieces of Islamic people, 110 of them located in Kompong Cham province, as well as its function has been restored and rehabilitated the building of 270 mosques and mosque, and 600 people dikikuhkan Master and Judge. Other provinces are also strong Islamic people of the province of Battambang and Kampot.

In Cambodia there were four united Islamic Ummah: ie the Islamic Samakum Kampuchea (Cambodia Islamic Union) under the leadership YB Math Ly. Khmer Kampuchea Samakum Islam (Unity of Islam Khmer Kampuchea) led by YB Wan Math. Islamic Samakun Anachakr Cambodia Preah Reach (Islamic Unity Kampouchea Kingdom) under the leadership of YB Ahmad Yahya, Islam, and Cham Samakum Kampuchea (Cambodia Islamic Unity Cam) chaired teacher named Teacher Zain who lived in Prek Pra. Second-two terms: the Khmer Islam and Cam are both accepted and used officially. Furthermore, there is also a foundation such as the Cambodian Muslim Development Foundation and the Islamic Development Community Combodian. And of course can not be overlooked is an organization of Muslim intellectuals Cambodia Cambodian Muslim Intellectual Alliance (CMIA), which organizes the event of our time.

The Islamic figures Cambodia renowned for its position close to pantadbiran include: YB Math Ly (parliamentary expert, timbalan Prime Minister and former Minister of Education). Onkha Othman Hassan (parliamentary expert, adviser to Prime Minister), YB Ahmad Yahya (Expert parliament), Ismail Yusoff HE (expert parliament), Ismail Osman YB (Expert timbalan parliament and ministers in the ministries It Ehwal Spirituality and Religion). YB Zakariyya Adam Osman (timbalan Minister in the Ministry of thing Ehwal Spirituality and Religion).

Cultural Relations Melayu Campa and Southeast Asia

As already mentioned, there are two ethnic blend in Cambodia, namely Malays-Cam. Kampuchea People called them the "Cam-JVA". The term "JVA", which comes from the word Java. While in Cambodia the term "JVA" was not meant only for people in Java, but all of the Malays or the Archipelago, including the Peninsula Land and Patani Malays. Medium "Cam", or derived from or ethnic Cham (the old kingdom) Campa.

If the Malays migrate from Tanah Melayu or the Archipelago, the man Cam massively displaced from their homeland in the central part of Vietnam now, and both of which happen to come from the same language family which is Austronesian, and later have the same religion, namely Islam , then both these ethnic quickly coalesce and give birth or ethnic Malays JVA-cam-Campa.

Although people can not membezakan Cambodia Malays, but from among the Malays themselves, divide the Malays into three categories: (1) The JVA Krabi (in written form Chhvea Krabei) shows the Malays who came from the island of Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau. Krapi in Cambodia means "buffalo", is expected to use the term of the JVA Krabi, because it supposedly was said long ago won over the Minangkabau buffalo buffalo brought from Java. (2) The JVA Ijava (Chhvea iava), that the Malays who came from Java. (3) The JVA Malay (chhvea Malayou), shows the Malays who came from developing countries and the Patani Malays Peninsula Land.

Hijrahnya the Malays of the archipelago, in the framework of trade or because their children are happy mngembara maritime sea off, predicted after the advent of Islam in the archipelago, so they come to bring Islam into Cambodia. Berlangsungabad immigration process was estimated to 13 and 14. The Malays have played a major role in the teaching of Islam in Cambodia. Khmer king often gives carpet to Islamic figures, like "Onkha To Koley", derived from Ukana To 'Cali. Koley derived from the word Kalih (Melayu language) or Kadi (Arabic for judge). Mat "Thy Reachea Onkha STI", is derived from King Ukana Mufti. Mufti (Arabic means giving fatwa), while "Onkha Reachea Peanich", derived from Ukana King Sampatti, Senopati (Java language, which means officers) who bertanggug responsibility in the field of commerce and economic development.

In the late 16th century, sources say there are two figures Khmer, Malayo-Cam, named Po, Rat or Cancona (derived from the Cam) and Lakshmana (the Malays), which I serve my king Ram (Ram of Joen Brai (1594 to 1596 ), both of them is known as the leader of a powerful army and powerful, and is believed to quell the rebellion and was escorted to lead various expeditions to various regions. As recompense, the King of Khmer endow their territory to make the Rabigh Thbaung as a place to live offspring and other Islamic societies.

By the 17th century, the Malays had to convert the king Khmer Ramadhipati I (cau Bana Cand) (1642-1658), Islam is estimated to enter the King Ramadhipati I was due to strong lobbying and influence of Islam in the palace, so that only a part of Islam, power is king can survive. King Ramadhipati I was the only Khmer king who converted to Islam until recent times.

To this end-time, Malaysia is a very enterprising Malays countries implement pengakajian Campa problem and its relation with the World Melayu, the assessment was conducted with the Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient, so the history of the Kingdom of Campa and its relation with the Malays, the curtain can be opened secret that sank with the loss of Campa's kingdom. And especially for Indonesia, actually Campa is the cultural sphere which has a special place - especially in the classical period, Majapahit and Sriwijaya era, in which cultural interaction region to region Campa - trade and cultural pertukarangan runs very intensive. Even in the old ceita, said that a beautiful princess named Gayatri Campa has dipersunting by the young king Singosari, found that the how the relationship has existed since long.

For the period before, need more diperkuatkan academic cooperation between Indonesia and Malaysia for old treasures menubuhkan excavation, assessment and Relationships Campa World Malayo-Malays, in terms of persepahaman world, within the framework of the cooperation of Muslims worldwide.