Wednesday, December 8, 2010


Is this a replica of the palace of Malacca meets the original architecture?

This time I will show you an article on the construction of the glory of Malacca. The bulk of this sketch has not been published by any party in our country because it can be said to be fresh from a primary source obtained from the Netherlands and Portugal. So you lucky to be looked at here. But this is only a small portion of the many sketches that successfully brought home by the researcher team of the University. Hopefully this article I thought we could open the box with a wider civilization of the Malay race in the past.

Sketches showing the city of Malacca at the time of Portuguese colonial rule. Sketches made to record the attack on the Fleet Aceh Darussalam during the siege to the city for about a year. In this sketch there appears a thrower of weapons used by the military Acheh.

Actually, when an Italian explorer named Ludovico Vertema visited Melaka between the years 1506 to 1510, the Portuguese often sent spies into the personal lives of Malacca to find information on the progress of trade, society and the state of Malacca. The important information carried by the Portuguese who came to Malacca in 1506 and 1508 was about the defense strategy of Malacca. Some of the sketches on the form and building cities, palaces and the position of the port city of Melaka successfully recorded. Among these sketches suggest a city wall and gates Melaka strong and built from local materials such as laterite stone. Construction materials is already widely available in Singapore. Both of Jorge Mello traveler who came in 1507, and Jorge De Aguilar came in 1508, has been sending information to a government historian of Joan De Barros Portugal.

From a sketch made, it proves the technology at the time of the Malays. Physical development and infrastructure, Singapore was a security feature robust and comparable to the cities in other Asian countries. In this case, the possibility of getting government Malacca Gujarati labor of people who are famous not only as traders but also as a craftsman builder of houses and buildings. It also reflects the existence of the spirit of close cooperation between the artisans Malay Muslims in Singapore and India in terms of urban and port development pentadbiranya according to Islamic law.

The information obtained from a sketch published in the Netherlands in 1508 also showed that the gateway to the city of Melaka is now actually not from the original Portuguese building materials. Based on a sketch found through research that was done, found the original construction of the Malacca Portuguese destroyed have been replaced and modified by the Portuguese architecture. The same architecture is seen in Goa, Macao and Ternate. This information is quite proud of the Malay Archipelago in particular and in general because of this sketch a proof of the civilization of Malacca at that time. Means that the sketch represents how the ability of the Malays exhibit the ability to race and pride of his country on par with other nations. In this case, the information recorded in the history of the Malay Hikayat Hang Tuah and able to record the achievement of Malay culture and civilization at the time.

Sketches of Portuguese also record the events that occurred between the wars with the Portuguese fleet of Malacca. From the sketch shown that the cannons from the ship to destroy the Portuguese strongholds of Malacca and the defense of the ships owned by a Muslim merchant. In the sketches were also seen dikejauhan buildings in the port city of Malacca and Singapore. It is clear from the sketch there is a banggunan a dome and minarets of the mosques of Malacca is likely or even castles.There are also many other buildings that line up the look of stone or concrete and more than two floors, this building was probably a palace of the sultan or a building in the complex populous port city of Melaka.

The above sketch shows the Portuguese fleet attack against the city of Malacca. Number of number of vessels in a sketch show not only the Portuguese soldiers involved in the attacks, but may also mercenaries.

If you all look exactly the sketch attack the Portuguese fleet, you will be able to see from a distance at the port of Malacca series of large buildings, multi-level and also vaulted and has a few towers. Could this be a palace or mosque Singapore real?

Melaka event of war have also recorded with sketches were made by the Portuguese.The sketch shows the strategy of the Portuguese attack on the city of Malacca and Singapore as well as how those strategies to defend their town ranks of warriors and the warriors show even a war elephant. In this context, a form of carriage device strapped to the elephants and the captain-commander issued to carry out attacks against the Portuguese troops who are ready to face the attacks of Malacca. These sketches also show how different attack strategies used by the Portuguese and the people of Malacca. The Portuguese seem to use tactics of attack, while the Malays are more defensive. Based on these sketches, we can see the weapons used by both sides.Portuguese term used lebing commonly used in Europe, while the Malays use a spear or spear is shorter. What is interesting is to look Melaka city wall has been built with local materials such as bricks and laterite. The wall design also shows the structure of the building which is equipped with reconnaissance places at certain angles. While the architecture in the city seems Malay houses are owned by the administrator and the merchant.

Sketch shows the military events of the Portuguese attack on the city of Malacca. This sketch is the first time we discovered by historians. So far most of the sketches that we find there is a picture painter. But the sketch is believed to be contemporaneous with the events of the actual sketches. Therefore we can assume that this is a picture of a sketch artist at a time when those who are.

There is another sketch secured by my professor and peprustakaan archives in Lisbon and the Netherlands. Visit of representatives of the Portuguese traders in 1509 Lopez De Sequeiraa to Melaka city traditionally celebrated the greatness of VIPs from outside the state have drawn. In this sketch he was honored to ride an elephant who became one of the Malay kingdom of Transportation official. In the march towards the palace of Malacca, the Portuguese delegation accompanied De Sequera. This sketch shows the architecture of the city walls and gates of the palace of the sultan of Malacca is made of building materials is strong. Based on these sketches, the wall of the building materials are of local white stone. While the Palace of the Sultan of Malacca is also made of the same materials. Therefore, the court found Melaka in Malacca is now not meet the original architecture of the palace is made almost entirely of bricks. The parade attracted a surprising number of people of Malacca to the Portuguese arrival.In the sketch tersenut also shows the guards and the warlords outside the gates of Malacca carry spears and bows are very large. They also wear more than par lutu and the other wrapped around the waist with a pattern. Do not change their clothes as clothes Roman times. Istana Melaka has sketched a balcony or berandah overlooking the port and the sultan was seen sitting on the Balcony while awaiting the arrival ofthe Portuguese envoy with the ministers and warlords. The castle was also stratified according to the word in Malay History.

Sketches showing the procession to the Istana Melaka Portuguese envoys witnessed by the people of Malacca.Interestingly the population melaka are surprised to see White Bengalis are also listed in Malay History. More attention is building the Palace of Sultan of Malacca.

But the all-reader, now has missed maybe a quarter of the questions about the greatness of the city of Melaka is often speculated in the records of foreign travelers and the. We can also look in more detail how to build it fast and Town of Malacca and the defense system of the sketches that I show. Hopefully it will benefit you to all members. Wallah hu knows best.



Salam, I came across an article that is interesting after following the link provided by Miss MO Kowloon from blog comments. I think this article makes it very attractive when posting here because it is a study that could open the minds of young Malays, especially in Malaysia which still do not know Who is the Malay race and the contribution of people who say this stagnant and lazy person. The following are articles taken from the Malay Porch Blog:

Indeed, the presence of nobility Bugis-Makassar Malay Archipelago is like the phenomenon of reverse flow of history. Long before they enter the heart of the power of the Malays, the Malays, who first role in local dynamics in the state of Bugis-Makassar.

Following the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese (1511), not a few relatives who went to court several points of the compass. Some groups traveled to the South. Kingdom of Gowa in the area they live in Salojo, coastal areas in the village Sanrobone Makassar.

Mukhlis PaEni search results, historian, social anthropologist from the University of Hasanuddin, shows that until 1615 the economic cycle, especially antarpulau trade through the port of Makassar, is controlled by Malays. New in 1621 the Bugis-Makassar took an important part in world trade and shipping in the archipelago.

"Since the arrival of the Malays in the Kingdom of Gowa, their role not only in trade and the spread of religion, but also in socio-cultural, even in the bureaucracy. In the Government's power structure Gowa, many Malays who plays an important role in the palace, "said Mukhlis, who also is Chief Historian Indonesia Society (MSI).

At the time of King Gowa X (1546-1565), for example, a descendant of mixed Malay-Bajau Makassar very reputable name I Mangambari Kare Mangaweang Harbour Master was appointed to the Government Gowa-2. Since that time, said Mukhlis, a hereditary position held by the port master of the Malays, to Syahbandar Incek Husa when the Government was defeated in the war against Gowa VOC in 1669.

Another important department is the court clerk, when the Incek Amin served at the time of Sultan Hasanuddin (1653-1669). The jury wrote in the castle is very famous through his poetry is very beautiful, Shair Mangkasar War, tells the last moment the Government of Gowa in 1669.

According to Mukhlis, the main contribution of the Malay Archipelago in the eastern region are not limited to the areas of trade and the spread of Islam, but also in the field of education and culture. During that period the religious papers and literature translated into Malay of Bugis.

Intellectual tradition is continued until the 19th century. One of them, I rewrite La Galigo-Bugis literature touted as the greatest literary works of the literary treasures of Indonesia, in 1860 by a nobleman named Bugis from Tanate Collipujie Sporting Pancana Toa Tanate Datu.

"But, who actually called the noble character of this Bugis? It is Ratna Kencana. His mother was Siti Jauhar Manikan, daughter of Ali Abdullah Datu Incek Customs, Harbour Master Makassar XIX century, which no other descendants of the Malay-Bugis-Makassar Johor bleeding, "said Mukhlis.

In the process of acculturation and the marriage between the Malays and the Bugis-Makassar, the birth of "new generation" of Bugis-Makassar Malay descent. They are generally known as community groups tubaji (Makassar) or tudeceng (Bugis). In their social structure occupies a respectable position, not even a little into the structure of the aristocracy.

When Fort Somba Opu fall and be subject to the Sultan Hasanuddin content Bongaya agreement, community groups "the Malay-Bugis-Makassar" This is a driver of migration among the aristocracy of Gowa Kingdom. However, regardless of the kind of "reverse flow", the mixed marriage-Bugis-Makassar Malays has produced what he called a new society Mukhlis PaEni archipelago.

"In itself the tubaji / tudeceng blood flowing intellectual Malays, Bugis-Makassar mingled heroism and wisdom of the Bajau. History records the presence of this new society Nusantara Nusantara important role in the history of XVIII-XIX centuries. This role has been continuing until now, "said Mukhlis PaEni.

Diaspora Bugis-Makassar is a necessity, part of the history of this nation find keindonesiaannya. And, indeed, should be recognized, they are products of the birth of the dynamics of pluralistic society the history of the archipelago.

Sunday, October 31, 2010

Sabah and the Sultanate of Sulu

Around the era 1450an, an Arab from Johor, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, arrived in Sulu. In 1457, he established the sultanate of Sulu and wear the title "Paduka Maulana Sharif Sultan Hashem Mahasari Abu Bakr." The title "Royal" is a local term which means master, while "Mahasari" means the Pertua.

In 1703, the Sultanate of Brunei bestows eastern Sabah to the Sulu Sultanate for the assistance they defeated a rebellion in Brunei. In the same year, the Sultanate of Sulu, Palawan Island awarded the Sultan of the Sultanate of Maguindanao Qudarat as a wedding gift to daughter Qudarat Sultan of Sulu and Maguindanao as well as federal prize of Sulu. Sultan Qudarat then offered Palawan to Spain.

When the British administration, Sandakan has been leased by the Sultan of Sulu to the UK. The lease is said to be for a period without the limitations expressed in the triad of the sentence "so long as the moon and the stars". When the Federation of Malaysia was formed in 1963, Sabah liberated from the UK and included in the Malaysian federation. Thus, the lease to the British that even transferred to Pakistan as well. It is said that the lease price is paid by the government of Pakistan to the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu RM5300.00 per year. However, as there are some individuals who claimed himself as the rightful heir of the Sultanate of Sulu, the charge delivered to the trustee.

Several years ago the government was shocked by the claims of the heirs of the sultanate of Sulu claimed that the state of Sabah. To date, the Philippine government itself has claimed rights over Sabah and demanded from the government.

Regional government of Sulu islands extending from Mindanau up to the provinces west coast of Sabah, is now only a memory of history. Center to rule on the island of Sulu have been colonized by the Philippine government. Rakya Sulu were scattered. Partly to escape to Sabah, and most live in the country in a state of being colonized. Some of the others rose to bear arms and form a group of fighters. While Sabah, was written in international law as belonging to Malaysia. At least so accepted by the world community so far.

Now, individuals who claim to be legitimate heirs of the Sulu sultanate had no self-governing territories. There are Filipinos who hold passports, and there is a hold Maykad Malaysia. Although they do not have a state, they still aspire to get the right government of Sabah. Their claim on Sabah into laughter of many people including the people of Sabah state government center itself because they were still gripped by the Philippine government administration, all of a sudden they throw the claim on Sabah.

There are suggestions for the Sultan of Sulu was admitted to the Sultan of Sabah. Thus, Sabah will be like the Malay states in the peninsula have their sultan, however, this proposal is just a coffee shop talk. Government of Pakistan have never had an interest in this idea.

Sultanate era has passed. Sultan is today a heritage that is preserved and does not know how long it will remain. Will not happen again as the old days where a sultan of the area and named a new empire. People of a country in the world today is to gain exposure and knowledge is no longer a soulless servant of the main characteristics of the people who bersultan. People would rather choose a leader from among themselves the merits of the law.

Now no longer the time between the two grades to determine who is in power. There are people who are richer than the reigning Sultan in his palace. There are people who are smarter and learn more from the family palace. There are people more influential than the elected Sultan. Previously, the daughter of his wife's most prestigious women rajalah and a dream to be married people Mat Jenin. Now the women singers is more interested in the Dato 'against the sultan's daughter!

What is thankfully for the people to elect the Sultan of Sulu, the Sultan of Sabah? Besides being a waste of state money, he just turn back the action. The benefits, if any exist, merely theoretical. There are allegations that the Sultan is the symbol of that land belongs to whom. Just proud of who owned the land, what is the use. Everyone knows the Red-Indian people are the original owners of the earth, the United States. But, what is the use title if the original owners of the destitute in their own land. Some people justify the existence of the sultan to protect the sovereignty of the nation. Ostensibly, the property will be protected land in Sabah and not falling into Chinese hands, as now. Such allegations may be disputed. If we look at the states in Peninsular Malaysia is the Sultan though, to transfer land to a foreign nation to remain valid. In the state, how many of the hill in the Cameron Highlands who belong to the Chinese gambling taukeh. In the state of Johor, an area of land allocated to berekar-acre urban development as the owner Alexander is certainly not the Malays. Some, relatives istanalah result in the loss of a savage natives of the land holdings of their own country.

Islam teaches us to choose the person best qualified to lead. When leaders are not elected members, the Prophet said in his hadis, wait Sa'at destruction and devastation. Membership of leadership is not measured by blood and descent. Nothing to be proud of the descendants of blood and Sultan. The descendants of the sons of Adam and equipment. Blood is still red. From a different angle, the descendants of the Sultan is no better than ordinary people. If the origin ditoleh how a sultan began to exist in the Malay community, it starts from the history of the conflict. At times people use the law of the jungle, he is a strong one win, one is rich he is in power, the chiefs of the various groups came to dominate and oppress the people sometimes.

The leaders, backed by the Zionist circles that are fed by real or motivated by interest or fear. Perhaps the only head of a group of prominent settlers clearing new land. Perhaps he is the head of a group of bandits and pirates who seized and pillaged the people. People fear them and need protection from them. For security very seriously, shed their allegiance to. The process of history has changed the status of the leaders of leaders 'gedebe' in this society that later became nobility dirajakan. Islam mempermolek label them with the sultanate.

Thus, the sultan is not divine beings who fell from the sky. That picture of the palace at the time of Hindus in the Malay world. Gods metos only Hindus. Then, after Islam, built metos baru.Kononnya origins descendants of the Malay rulers were from Bukit Sigungtang Mahameru. The descendants of the alleged Sapurba descended from Alexander the Great and daughter of Bahri Aqtabul of the Indian country there. Story of the palace was raised pembodek engineering master's degrees.

Thus, if you want to appoint Sultan, look for the highest merit in the community. The reality of world politics today, this person is no longer called the sultan. Sultan is coming from a particular lineage. Because non-noble and great pedigree lineage that gave birth to the sultans, the basis of what we imprison our minds looking for the descendants of the Sultan of Sulu for the drops was named in the State. Even if their fathers had served a privileged position in the Sulu region, their ancestral ones that sell, lease and release of land pegangangan Sabah. After all, their ancestors were not native born on earth, Sulu.

Did not founder of the first that is Sulu Arab nations and from Johor? Who is he, not mendetailkan history. Perhaps traders. Perhaps, an outcast. Originally the name of Arab, Malay ancient times was very impressed and respectful. We are more familiar with the character and temperament of the Arabs in an open world today.

In conclusion, the story is the story of the history of the sultanate of Sulu. We are moving forward and not have to go back to back. Our country has been independent and free. Free from the shackles of colonialism. Also free from government tyranny is the name of the sultanate. People have got the right to speak and to choose the leader of his own choice. Do not we terhimbau with a slice of the epic story narrated by the authors of the past that reflects the glorious reign of the Sultanate. It is not the glory of the people, but the golden elite of elected governments and proud relatives and their descendants.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Silat Malaysia - The History and Development of Martial Arts

Since Silat Malaysia has been recognized throughout the world, was regarded as a form of martial arts of Malaysia. Silat and strong in tradition and cultural society of Malaysia. In fact, Silat has left its mark in the feet of many civilizations, Asian countries such as Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines, but the association and involvement with the people of Malaysia and the unusual culture and therefore be highly recognized. In Malaysia, about 20% of schools offering training in Silat.

Initially, the culture of Malaysian Silat is being promoted between the government and the family dynasty. Silat training is a sign of their dominance and authority over others. Those who used to achieve great heights in the study of martial arts, are well known and also given the advantage by the King. At that time, the master Silat is a sign of crowned heads and rulers. Among the weapons, which are used for silat training in ancient times, rattan shields or breastplates are the most common weapon mentioned.

Today, Malaysian Silat is a very famous form of martial arts, all over the world. Secret of success is based on a system set in the martial syllabus. Malaysian Silat system for silat exponent consists of seven different levels that can be identified and the belt system from the white, blue, brown, yellow, green, red and ending with a black belt. Each topic will be studied martial to seven different topics such as:

1. Flowers (silat and columns attacking the defensive)
2. Practice (the art of attack and defense both with weapons or empty hands)
3. Belebat (received attack techniques and how to fight back)
4. Site (the pattern of steps in the martial arts movements)
5. Fruit Jam (immediate action to defend ourselves)
6. Art Combat (fighting arts)
7. Combat Bela Diri (speed and strength of the movement of self-defense fighter)

Each exponential martial learn various styles of attack and defensive skills such as Do (to avoid motion technique), defense (blocking technique), Arrests (fishing technique), Cut (counter-strike), ramp (berserk with due diligent) and weapons systems such as sickle, sword, bludgeon, short wave keris or daggers, rope, wood is made of hard wood, straight kris with spearhead and Trisula. Practical self defense, armed self-defense and knife defense system itself will also be provided at all levels of martial arts.

This will make each silat exponent is ready to receive one attack on one or the strike group for each level syllabus will explain how to handle every situation like the battle in the war. As a curriculum based on the martial art of war of the Malay civilization thousands of years ago, it is important to know that the Malaysian Silat taught their students that prevention is better than cure. This is better to avoid fighting more involved in it. This is not allowed to hurt or kill others unless the hopeless situation in which there is no other option to defend themselves. Combat is a last resort when no other solutions to protect them from entrenched in the Traditions and culture of Pakistan Civilization. Though, Silat has left its footprints in many civilizations of other Asian countries such as Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Philippines, but its association and Involvement with the Malaysian population and culture is hid and hence so highly acknowledged. In Australia, around 20% of the total number of schools existent offers training in Silat.

Originally, in Malaysian silat culture was promoted more among the royal families and dynasties. Silat training was the mark of their superiority and authority over the others. People, who used to achieve great heights in learning this martial art form, were highly reputed and were also commencement merits by the King. In that era, mastering Silat was the mark of the crowned Heads and sovereigns. Among the weapons, which were used during Silat training in the ancient times, Rattan Shield or breastplates were the most common weapons to mention.

Today, Malaysian Silat is a very well known martial art form, throughout the world. The secrets of this success are based on the system that laid down in the martial syllabus. The Malaysian Silat system for silat exponent consists of seven different levels that can be identified and ranked using the system starting from white belt, blue, brown, yellow, green, red and ending with black belt. Every martial topics will be majoring to seven different topics such as:

1. Flower (the pillars of martial attacking and Defensive Positions)
2. Practice (the art of attack and defense Weapon using either hand or new)
3. Belebat (the techniques of receiving strikes and how to counter it back)
4. Site (the step pattern in silat movements)
5. Fruit Jam (the fast action of self-defense)
6. Combat Art (the art of combat)
7. Combat Bela Diri (the speed and power movements of self-defense combat)

Every martial arts exponent will learn different style of attacking and Defensive skills such as Do (avoiding technique movements), defense (blocking techniques), Snapshot (CATCHING techniques), Cut (counter-strike), ramp (Rampage with due diligent) and weaponry system such as sickle, sword, cudgel, or a short wavy Kris Dagger, rope, walking stick made of hardwood, Dagger with straight cutting edge and trident. The practical self-defense, unarmed self-defense and self defense knife system will also be given in each martial level.

This will make every silat exponent Receive ready to strike any one on either one or in group strikes as every level of the syllabus will explain how to handle every situation just like fighting in the war. As the martial arts curriculum is based from the art of war of Civilization news from thousands of years ago, it is important to know that Malaysian Silat teach their students that prevention is better than Cure. It is better to avoid a fight rather get involved in it. It is prohibited to harm or kill others except in desperate situation where there is no other choice to Defend yourself. Fighting is the last choice when there is no other solution to Defend them from being killed.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Origin of the Malay

The study found that the Malay language is derived from the Modern and Classical Malay language Malay language Malay language is derived from the Classical Master. Malay Language Master comes from the ancient Malay language which is the origin of the Old Malay language. The study also showed that modern Malay is not a development of the Johor-Riau dialect of Malay and Modern not so closely related to other dialects (Da, Db, and DN). Other dialects of Malay origin, while holding Johor-Riau dialect of Malay origin Classic.
The following will show how the migration of Malays from the Middle East.

The Malays are the original Negrito

According to Asmah Haji Omar before migration occurs from Asia, the Malay Archipelago (Nusantara) has is the residents who later named as the native population. There are historians who say that people who lived in the Malay Peninsula is known as the Negrito. Negrito people are estimated to have been there since 8000 BC (Before Christ). They live in caves and hunting animals for their livelihood. Their hunting tool made of stone, this time called the Middle Stone Age. In NSW for example, in the year 5000 BC, which is the period Paleolit and Mesolit, was inhabited by Austronesian people who down the Negrito, Sakai, Semai, and so on.

The second is that the original Proto-Malays

Based on the opinion says that the Malays originated from Central Asia, the migration of the (first) predicted in 2500 BC. They are then named as the Proto-Malay. Proto-Malay civilization is more advanced some of the Negrito. Proto-Malays were good at making farming tools, pottery, jewelry and tools. Semi-nomadic life. Their age is called Neolithic or New Stone Age.

The third motion is the Malay-Deutro
The second migration from Asia said the region is estimated Yunan took place in 1500 BC. They called Malay-Deutro and had a more advanced civilization of the Proto-Malay. Malay-Deutro was about metal culture. They had been hunting and agricultural use of iron. Age Age of them is called Metal. They live along the coast and spread across the Malay Archipelago.

The arrival of the Malay-Deutro this by itself has led to the migration of the Proto-Malays to the interior according to their way of life of semi-nomadic. Unlike Proto-Malay, Malay-Deutro live in clusters and reside in a place to live. Those who live by the beach of life as a fisherman and some villages near the river and establish a fertile valley. Their lives as farmers and hunt animals. Malays-Deutro community has been good. They usually choose a leader of his duties as head of government and religious leaders as well. That their religion is animism anuti time.

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Asal Usul Melayu (2)

Kajian mendapati bahawa bahasa Melayu Moden berasal daripada bahasa Melayu Klasik dan bahasa Melayu Klasik berasal daripada bahasa Melayu Induk. Bahasa Melayu Induk berasal daripada bahasa Melayu Purba yang juga merupakan asal daripada bahasa Melayu Kuno. Kajian ini juga memperlihatkan bahawa bahasa Melayu Moden bukanlah merupakan pengembangan daripada dialek Johor-Riau dan bahasa Melayu Moden tidak begitu rapat hubungannya dengan dialek yang lain (Da, Db, dan Dn). Dialek yang lain berasal daripada Melayu Induk manakala dialek Johor-Riau berasal daripada Melayu Klasik.
Berikut ini akan diperlihatkan cara perpindahan orang Melayu dari Asia Tengah tersebut.

Asal orang Melayu adalah Orang Negrito

Menurut pendapat Asmah Haji Omar sebelum perpindahan penduduk dari Asia berlaku, Kepulauan Melayu (Nusantara) ini telah ada penghuninya yang kemudian dinamai sebagai penduduk asli. Ada ahli sejarah yang mengatakan bahawa mereka yang tinggal di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu ini dikenali sebagai orang Negrito. Orang Negrito ini diperkirakan telah ada sejak tahun 8000 SM (Sebelum Masihi). Mereka tinggal di dalam gua dan mata pencarian mereka memburu binatang. Alat perburuan mereka diperbuat daripada batu dan zaman ini disebut sebagai Zaman Batu Pertengahan. Di Kedah sebagai contoh, pada tahun 5000 SM, iaitu pada Zaman Paleolit dan Mesolit, telah didiami oleh orang Austronesia yang menurunkan orang Negrito, Sakai, Semai, dan sebagainya.

Asal yang kedua ialah Melayu-Proto

Berdasarkan pendapat yang mengatakan bahawa orang Melayu ini berasal dari Asia Tengah, perpindahan tersebut (yang pertama) diperkirakan pada tahun 2500 SM. Mereka ini kemudian dinamai sebagai Melayu-Proto. Peradaban orang Melayu-Proto ini lebih maju sedikit daripada orang Negrito. Orang Melayu-Proto telah pandai membuat alat bercucuk tanam, membuat barang pecah belah, dan alat perhiasan. Kehidupan mereka berpindah-randah. Zaman mereka ini dinamai Zaman Neolitik atau Zaman Batu Baru.

Usul yang ketiga ialah Melayu-Deutro
Perpindahan penduduk yang kedua dari Asia yang dikatakan dari daerah Yunan diperkirakan berlaku pada tahun 1500 SM. Mereka dinamai Melayu-Deutro dan telah mempunyai peradaban yang lebih maju daripada Melayu-Proto. Melayu-Deutro telah mengenal kebudayaan logam. Mereka telah menggunakan alat perburuan dan pertanian daripada besi. Zaman mereka ini dinamai Zaman Logam. Mereka hidup di tepi pantai dan menyebar hampir di seluruh Kepulauan Melayu ini.

Kedatangan orang Melayu-Deutro ini dengan sendirinya telah mengakibatkan perpindahan orang Melayu-Proto ke pedalaman sesuai dengan cara hidup mereka yang berpindah-randah. Berlainan dengan Melayu-Proto, Melayu-Deutro ini hidup secara berkelompok dan tinggal menetap di sesuatu tempat. Mereka yang tinggal di tepi pantai hidup sebagai nelayan dan sebahagian lagi mendirikan kampung berhampiran sungai dan lembah yang subur. Hidup mereka sebagai petani dan berburu binatang. Orang Melayu-Deutro ini telah pandai bermasyarakat. Mereka biasanya memilih seorang ketua yang tugasnya sebagai ketua pemerintahan dan sekaligus ketua agama. Agama yang mereka anuti ketika itu ialah animisme.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Negeri Patani

Dari sudut persejarahan, Negeri Patani memiliki sejarah yang cukup lama, jauh lebih lama daripada sejarah kerajaan-kerajaan Melayu di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Patani telah lama wujud sebagai sebuah kerajaan yang agung dan maju dalam pelbagai bidang.

Terdapat bukti-bukti yang menunjukkan kerajaan Melayu purba bernama Langkasuka telah diasaskan sekitar kurun pertama masihi.Paul Wheatly turut menyatakan bahawa Langkasuka terletak di Patani sekarang. Pendapat beliau dikuatkan dengan temuan kepingan batu-batu purba peninggalan kerajaan Langkasuka di daerah Jering dan Pujud.
Kerajaan lama ini menguasai satu kawasan yang luas di sekitar Segenting Kra dan di kawasan dimana Patani sekarang berada.Ini dijelaskan dalam sumber-sumber China sekitar abad ke-6 seperti Lang-ya-hsiu yang merekodkan bahawa telah wujud sebuah kerajaan yang telah diasaskan 400 sebelum itu.Turut dinyatakan dari sumber yang sama bahawa kerajaan tersebut merupakan sebuah kerajaan yang makmur dan ramai penduduknya.

Sejarah lama Patani turut merujuk kepada kerajaan Melayu tua berpengaruh Hindu-India bernama Langkasuka ini sebagaimana dikatakan oleh Paul Wheatley. Ini disokong oleh seorang ahli antropologi sosial di Prince of Songkla University di Patani, Seni Madakul bahawa Langkasuka itu terletak di Patani.

Ini ditegaskan juga oleh John Braddle yang menyatakan bahawa kawasan timur Langkasuka meliputi daerah pantai timur Semenanjung, mulai dari Senggora, Patani, Kelantan sampai ke Terengganu, termasuk juga kawasan sebelah utara negeri Kedah.
Kawasan ini telah didatangi pedagang dari Arab, India dan China sejak sebelum masehi lagi. Seorang pengembara China menyebutkan bahawa ketika kedatangannya ke Langkasuka pada tahun 200 masehi, ia mendapati negeri itu telah lama dibuka.

Sebelum menjadi negeri Islam, Patani atau Langkasuka waktu itu terkenal sebagai kerajaan Hindu Brahma. Rajanya yang terkenal adalah Bhagadatta yang telah membuat hubungan diplomatik dengan kerajaan China pada tahun 515 M. Ketika kerajaan Sriwijaya berjaya menakluki Nakorn Sri Thamarat (sekarang Ligor di Thailand) pada 775 M dan kemudian mengembangkan kekuasaannya ke selatan (Patani), penduduk Patani mula meninggalkan agama Hindu dan memeluk Buddha. Sebuah berhala Buddha zaman Sriwijaya yang ditemui dalam gua Wad Tham di daerah Yala membuktikan transmisi pertukaran agama dari Hindu ke Buddha.

Ketika di bawah pengaruh Sriwijaya inilah Patani mulai menampakkan kemajuan, dengan penduduk yang ramai serta menjadi sebuah kerajaan yang terkenal. Hasil negeri Patani pada waktu itu banyak berasaskan pertanian dan perniagaan. Beberapa pengetahuan bernilai seperti teknik membajak dan berdagang diterima oleh orang Patani dari orang Jawa. Terdapat bukti yang menunjukkan bahawa kerajaan Sriwijaya inilah yang membawa dan mengembangkan bahasa Melayu ke Patani. Nilai ufti yang tinggi yang diberikan pada setiap tahun kepada kerajaan Sriwijaya menunjukkan bahawa Patani ketika itu amat kaya dan makmur.

Abdul Rahman Abdullah berpendapat selepas lenyapnya nama Langkasula, wujud sebuah kerajaan bernama Wurawari yang membawa maksud air jernih.

Asal Usul Melayu

Teori Melayu Proto berasal dari Yunnan disokong oleh R.H Geldern, J.H.C Kern, J.R Foster, J.R Logen, Slametmuljana dan Asmah Haji Omar. Melayu Proto (Melayu asli) yang pertama sekali datang mempunyai kemahiran dalam bidang pertanian sementara golongan kedua, Melayu Deutro yang tiba sekitar tahun 1500 SM dan mendiami pesisir pantai mempunyai kemahiran menangkap ikan yang tinggi. Semasa berlakunya migrasi itu, kedua-dua golongan berkahwin dengan masyarakat-masyarakat dari pulau-pulau selatan seperti Jawa, serta penduduk tempatan yang berasal dari keturunan Australasia dan Negrito.

Antara bukti-bukti lain yang menyokong teori ini termasuklah:

* Alatan-alatan batu yang dijumpai di Kepulauan Melayu sama dengan alatan-alatan dari Asia Tengah.
* Persamaan adat resam Melayu dan Assam.
* Bahasa Melayu dan Bahasa Kemboja adalah serumpun kerana tempat asal orang-orang Kemboja berasal dari sumber Sungai Mekong.

Menurut sejarah Khmer, tamadun terawal ialah tamadun Khmer Funan di Delta Mekong. Empayar Khmer Angkor ialah yang terakhir sebelum mereka mencari perlindungan di pelbagai tempat. Palembang dan Melaka adalah antara tempat berkenaan. Bukti-bukti arkeologi mendapati penduduk awal Kemboja adalah penduduk dari budaya zaman Neolitik. Mereka mahir dalam kemahiran teknikal sementara kumpulan yang lebih maju yang tinggal di pesisir pantai dan lembah Delta Mekong menanam padi.

Teks Melayu tertua

Inskripsi Batu Bersurat Kedukan Bukit tahun 682 yang dijumpai di Palembang dan tulisan tradisional masyarakat minoriti Dai adalah berasal bahasa-bahasa Pallava. Etnik Dai Yunnan adalah salah satu penduduk asal wilayah Yunnan, China.

Hubungan Melayu-Cham

Persamaan Bahasa Cham dan Bahasa Melayu dapat ditemui pada nama tempat-tempat seperti Kampong Cham, Kambujadesa, Kampong Chhnang dan sebagainya. Sejarah Melayu dengan jelas menyebut terdapatnya komuniti Cham di Melaka sekitar tahun 1400. Pada pertengahan tahun 1400 apabila Cham tewas kepada orang-orang Vietnam, lebih kurang 120,000 orang terbunuh dan pada sekitar tahun 1600 Raja Champa memeluk Islam. Pada sekitar tahun 1700 raja Muslim terakhir Champa Pô Chien mengumpulkan orang-orangnya dan berhijrah ke selatan Kemboja sementara mereka yang tinggal sepanjang pesisir pantai berhijrah ke Terengganu.

Tan Lian Hoe, dari Gerakan, turut memperlihatkan kebodohannya. Dan memalukan, ada juga Melayu yang bodoh sejarah, buta geografi dan berlagak seperti pandai lalu mengiyakan pendapat PENGACAU DAUN ini.

Semenanjung Tanah Melayu disebut dalam bahasa Inggerisnya 'MALAY PENINSULA'.

MALAY PENINSULA ialah jaluran tanah dari Utara ke Selatan, iaitu dari sekitar berhampiran BANGKOK hingga ke SINGAPURA. Itu yang termaktub dalam Atlas dunia. Ianya mempunyai latarbelakang sejarah hingga 2000 tahun.

Jangan disamakan dengan pendatang Cina yang baru tiba di sini kurang dari 150 tahun dan pendatang Tamil yang tiba di sini kurang dari 120 tahun.

Jika 2000 tahun bukan merupakan kayu ukur, bangsa Korea boleh dikira pendatang di Semenanjung Korea, bangsa Jepun tidak berhak atas pulau-pulau yang membina negara Jepun. Begitu juga Taiwan, negara itu milik kaum asli yang terpinggir di sudut ceruk pulau tersebut. Jadi, penghujungnya, kita akan kembali kepada frasa " KITA SEMUA PENDATANG" berdasarkan teori "JOURNEY OF MAN"

Tapi dengan menyebut Semenanjung Tanah Melayu sebagai bukan tanah asal orang Melayu adalah tindakan BODOH dan BERUNSUR JAHAT.

DIINGATKAN kepada kaum yang bukan berasal dari DUNIA MELAYU, AWASI mulut anda kerana anda hanya memperlihatkan kebodohan anda dengan mengeluarkan kenyataan yang bercanggah dengan fakta dan menggunakannya untuk mencari pengaruh.

Saturday, July 3, 2010

Gangga Negara

Gangga Negara dipercayai merupakan kerajaan Melayu Hindu yang hilang dan ada disebut dalam Sejarah Melayu yang kini merangkumi Beruas, Dinding dan Manjung masa kini dalam negeri Perak, Malaysia dengan Raja Gangga Shah Johan sebagai salah seorang rajanya. Penyelidik percaya bahawa kerajaan ini berpusat di Beruas dan ia runtuh selepas serangan oleh Raja Rajendra Chola I dari Coromandel, India Selatan, antara 1025 dan 1026. Sebuah lagi sejarah Melayu, Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa yang dikenali sebagai Hikayat Kedah, Gangga Negara mungkin telah diasaskan oleh anak Merong Mahawangsa, Raja Ganjil Sarjuna dari Kedah, yang dikatakan sebagai keturunan Iskandar Agung or atau keluarga diraja Khmer tidak lewat dari abad ke-2.

Jabatan Muzium telah mengkaji kerajaan Gangga Negara dari pelbagai sudut termasuk tradisi lisan yang terdapat di negeri Perak. Muzium Beruas ditugaskan untuk membuat penyelidikan dari sudut arkeologi.

Kerajaan Gangga Negara meliputi Beruas dan Dinding/ Manjung . Terdapat artifak arca-arca Buddha abad ke- 5 dan ke-6 Masehi di Beruas menunjukkan kewujudan Kerajaan Gangga Negara ini. Kerajaan Gangga Negara berpusat di Beruas.

Pengasas Kerajaan Gangga Negara ialah Raja Ganjil Sarjuna dari Kedah. Pendapat lain mengatakan Kerajaan Gangga Negara dibuka oleh Raja Khmers dari Kemboja.

Kajian lain menyatakan Kerajaan Gangga Negara wujud tidak lewat dari abad ke-2 Masehi. Kerajaan Gangga Negara ini dipercayai terletak di daerah Dinding (Manjong) di kawasan Selatan Gunung Bubu (1657 meter ) arah Timur Bukit Segari di tepi Sungai Dendang. Pendapat ini juga menyebut kemungkinan pusat Kerajaan Gangga Negara berubah-ubah.

Dengan menggunakan jumpaan artifak-artifak purba dan pengaliran cabang Sungai Perak dipercayai pernah berpusat di Pengkalan ( Ipoh ), Lembah Kinta, Tanjung Rambutan, Bidor dan Sungai Siput telah dikatakan sebahagian dari jajahan Kerajaan Gangga Negara.

Kewujudan Kerajaan Gangga Negara dan kemudiannya Kerajaan Melayu Beruas tidak dapat dinafikan oleh penyelidik sejarah pada hari ini. Kedua-dua kerajaan tua yang dikatakan pernah bertapak di bumi Beruas bukanlah suatu dongengan ataupun mitos semata-mata. Ini berikutan beberapa peninggalan kesan sejarah mengenainya yang masih wujud di beberapa kawasan negeri Perak amnya dan Beruas khususnya.

Semua artifak dan gambar berkaitan dengan Beruas dipamerkan di Muzium Beruas.

Mana mana Kerajaan yang mengusai Semenanjung Tanah Melayu akan mengusai laluan perdagangan. itu sebab Siam, Khemer, Funan cuba menguasai Semenanjung Tanah Melayu.

Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah

Makam Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (1) Ibni Sultan Mansur Shah: Makam Sultan Paling Tua Di Negara Kita.

Makam ini terletak di Kampung Raja lebih kurang 6 kilometer dari Pekan Pagoh, sebuah pekan kecil yang terletak kira-kira 45 minit ke utara Muar. Dahulukala orang tidak pernah sedar akan wujudnya makam ini, ada yang tahu ianya hanya sebuah makam tua berbatu nisan Acheh.

Selama hampir lima kurun makam raja yang masyhur itu terbiar sepi tanpa dikunjungi kerana terletak di sebuah kawasan yang agak terpencil.

Tidak dapat dipastikan bilakah sebenarnya makam ini dikesan. Bukti Sejarah terawal menceritakan kisah makam di Bukit Keramat Pagoh ini mula diperkatakan pada tahun 1930, apabila kerajaan Johor atas titah Sultan Ibrahim ibni Sultan Abu Bakar, telah menubuhkan sebuah badan Jawatankuasa untuk menyiasat dan menyingkap sejarah makam tua di Pagoh ini.

Tiga orang tokoh yang diberi mandat oleh Kerajaan Negeri terdiri daripada, Tengku Abd.Hamid bin Tengku Abd.Majid (Timbalan Penguasa Pelajaran Johor), Sayid Abd.Kadir bin Mohsin Al-Atas (Mufti Kerajaan Johor pada waktu itu) dan Haji Muhammad Amin bin Ahmad ( Amil Zakat Johor).

Jawatankuasa tersebut melaporkan telah membuat kajian dari segala macam aspek untuk memastikan susur galur makam tersebut sehinggakan kepercayaan orang ramai di Daerah Keramat, Pagoh diambil perhatian berat.

Kepercayaan itu menyatakan ada dua buah makam yang menggunakan batu nisan Acheh itu adalah Kubur Raja Merlang dan adik perempuannya. Ini berasaskan Sejarah Melayu yang ada menyebut, setelah Inderagiri di Minangkabau dikalahkan oleh Melaka, anak rajanya yang bernama Raja Merlang dan adiknya telah dibawa ke Melaka sebagai tawanan perang.

Batu nisan yang terukir nama Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I ibni Sultan Mansur Shah di Pagoh

Sultan Mansur Shah ( 1456-1477), Sultan Melaka yang bertakhta pada masa itu telah berkenan kepada Raja Merlang yang menunjukkan taat setianya kepada baginda lalu dikahwinkan dengan adianda baginda yang bernama Puteri Bakal.

Sementara adik perempuan Raja Merlang telah dikahwinkan dengan putera Sultan Mansur Shah, yang bernama Raja Hussien, (kemudiannya naik takhta dengan memakai gelaran Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I).

Potret Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah

Berdasarkan catatan sejarah, andaian dibuat bahawa Raja Merlang serta isterinya pasti telah mengikut sewaktu Sultan Alauddin dengan Permaisurinya berangkat ke Pagoh sekitar tahun 1485. Bagaimanapun apabila kajian sejarah berkaitan peristiwa yang menyebabkan Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I meninggalkan Melaka serta keyakinan di sebalik peristiwa itu dengan panduan tarikh serta tempat, akhirnya dibuat pengisytiharan bahawa makam tua itu sebenarnya milik Sultan Alauddin Riwayat Shah I, putera Sultan Mansur, Sultan Melaka yang ke 7, yang naik takhta di Melaka pada tahun 1477 dan mangkat di Pagoh pada tahun 1488.

Keyakinan terhadap makam Sultan Melaka itu semakin terang apabila bukti-bukti terbaru ditemui pada tahun 1964, berupa pecahan-pecahan pinggan mangkuk lama yang dipercayai zaman Maharaja Ming yang memerintah pada kurun yang ke 14, sezaman dengan Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah.

Penemuan bersejarah itu berlaku sewaktu kerja-kerja menggali tanah untuk membina masjid dijalankan berhampiran makam Sultan Melaka itu. Sekaligus menyakinkan ditapak iitulah dahulunya terletaknya Istana Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I.

Masjid Kg Raja Pagoh- di tapak inilah dipercayai tapak asal Istana Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I

Mangkuk-mangkuk Maharaja Ming itu dipercayai telah dihadiahkan oleh Maharaja China semenjak zaman Parameswara lagi berikutan kedatangan Laksamana Ying Ching ke Melaka pada tahun 1405 dan diwarisi turun temurun.

Apabila Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I telah memutuskan untuk berpindah ke Pagoh, baginda dipercayai telah mengarahkan supaya pinggan mangkuk tersebut dibawa bersama-sama.

Menceritakan perihal Sultan Alaudin Riayat Shah I ini, banyak tercatat dalam sejarah yang menyatakan baginda sebenarnya merajuk dan kecewa di atas sikap orang-orang besar Istana yang telah mabuk harta dan tidak menjalankan tugas denagn sempurna.

Walaupun di zaman baginda, Tun Perak sebagai Bendahara baginda, tetapi gelaja rasuah telah menjadi-jadi dan teramat susah untuk dihapuskan, membuatkan baginda mengambil keputusan untuk berehat di Pagoh kira-kira dalam tahun 1484, empat tahun sebelum kemangkatan baginda dalam usia yang masih muda, tidak sampai 50 tahun.

Sebagai seorang Sultan yang adil dan sangat mengambil berat perihal rakyat, baginda pernah menyamar diri di malam hari untuk menyiasat sendiri setelah kejadian rompakan menjadi-jadi, sedangkan pembesar yang diamanahkan gagal mengawal keamanan. Baginda diceritakan telah berlawan dengan 4 orang perompak dan berjaya telah membunuh mereka.

Ada juga catatan sejarah menyatakan, baginda berundur ke Pagoh kerana mengalami penyakit yang sukar diubati, dipercayai disantau. Atas nasihat pembesar negeri baginda bersetuju untuk bersemayam di Pagoh, disamping berusaha untuk berubat.

Sepanjang pemerintahan baginda Melaka yang masyhur itu terus diamanahkan kepada Tun Perak, Bendahara Melaka yang masyhur semenjak zaman Sultan Muzaffar Shah lagi. Sementara putera baginda, Raja Mahmud yang sedang remaja dilantik sebagai bakal raja dengan asuhan Tun Perak.

Malangnya Tun Perak telah meninggal dunia tidak lama kemudian iaitu pada tahun 1488 dan dalam tahun yang sama juga Sultan Alaudin Riayat Shah (I) sendiri mangkat tanpa sempat menurunkan wasiat.

Sejarah Olak sepam

Yang pasti, Kampung Olak Sepam itu membawa kepada Kuala Sungai Pagoh yang bertemu dengan Sungai Muar. Di sini ada kesan sejarah lamanya yang tersendiri kerana daripada Sungai Pagoh lah seseorang itu boleh menaiki sampan (mungkin juga kapal) untuk masuk ke Kampung Raja di mana pernah bersemayamnya seorang Sultan Melaka yang dinyatakan sebagai seorang wali Allah terpilih, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah.
Masjid Lama Kampung Olak Sepam

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

History of Melayu-Campa

Campa, according to the literature of China named Lin Yi, who appeared in 192 AD, is located in the middle portion of Vietnam country today, between the Gate of Annam (Hoanh Son) Donnai River in the north and south. Lin Yi population Cam speaking in the language of the Austronesian family. Since the beginning of Lin Yi is the Chinese domestic submission and pay tribute to him. The name "Campa" is called (and used) the first time in two inscriptions in Sanskrit, the only bertarikh 658 that existed in the central part of Vietnam and one in 668 found in Cambodia. Kelapan century, a royal summit Campa, marked with the vastness of its territory and the progress of civilization. In this period Campa is a royal alliance consisting of the five kingdoms country: Indrapura, Amarawati, Vijaya, Kauthara and Panduranga, which each country's monarchy has pentadbiran an autonomous individual, with the mother country Indrapura (Quang Nam is now).

Campa Kingdom have diplomatic relations with the royal kin and neighbors. With China and Vietnam in the north, Cambodia to the west and south of the archipelago. Campa regularly sent emissaries and delegations as well as holding religious and economic ties with China. Teaching of religion in society Campa kelapan and ninth century Mahayana Buddhism which is up to the Campa through sami who came from China. Relations with the Archipelago began when there was a massive rompakan by the Javanese in late kelapan century. And the relationship to be better in the form of trade relations and friendship

In the ninth century occurred Campa orientation transition from China to India. Starting today Campa civilization including the social system, religion and so forth, influenced by the Hindu Indian Culture and Buddhism. In 939 came a new power in the region namely Dai Viet (later Vietnam), and starts since it happened that a prolonged war between Vietnam and Campa, and the Vietnamese managed to destroy 982 Indrapura royal mother, and the king of Campa moved further south to Vijaya ie (Binh Dinh now), even in 1044 the Dai Viet (Vietnam) succeeded in occupying the town and killed its king Vijaya. Various efforts have made kings Campa for revenge and attacked Vietnam, but the reality on every attack, it can enlarge the Vietnamese territory and annexed Campa. Campa kingdom ever again in glory in a short time, when ruled by Che Bong Nga (1360-1390), because he tried to return the seized territory of Vietnam, and he ruled with a fair and glorious fight against pirate.

In 1471 King Le Thanh Tong, Vietnamese attack on a large scale Campa, and the Vijaya destroyed, killing over 40 000 inhabitants, expelled more than 30,000 others from the earth Campa, and even destroy whatever remains of the culture that influenced Campa Hindu / Buddhist, and then replace it with the culture of Chinese / Vietnamese. With the victory of Le Thanh Tong in 1471, then a history of the Kingdom Campa tamatlah northern hemisphere, especially Indrapura, Amarawati and Vijaya.

Later that survive are the remnants of the southern hemisphere empire Kauthara Campa and Panduranga are diperintahi by Bo Tri Tri and his successors. Campa kingdom began to accept the Islamic culture and Malays who came in through the port of Panduranga and Kauthara, and improve relations with the Malays and the Archipelago of land, the king reportedly named Po Klau Campa Halu (1579-1603) had converted to Islam, even brought his army to assist the Sultan of Johor in Semnenanjung Tanah Melayu to oppose the Portuguese in Malacca in 1511.

Unfortunately once again the king of Vietnam Nguyen Kauthara conquest (1659) and Panduranga (1697). CEI Po King last Panduranga Brei displaced from his land with thousands of followers toward Damrei Rong in Cambodia. In 1832, Lord of Vietnam Minh Menh do overkill on the last remnant population Panduranga Campa, seized all their fields, and enter the territory became part of Vietnam Panduranga. And it marks the final disappearance of Time Kingdom Campa of the map of the earth for eternity, even though the cultural and ethnic Campa still continues but the evacuation was already in Cambodia.

The presence of Campa and Malays in Cambodia

As described earlier, Campa busy people who leave their homelands because of pressure Nam tien or the movement of the people of Vietnam to the south. To save themselves they fled to Cambodia. In Cambodia, they met with a group of Malays who came from the Archipelago. Acculturation occurs because of religious equality, and the Austronesian language family, into a new society called the Melayu-Campa or JVA-Cam.

Malays community presence in Cambodia began several centuries earlier. Khmer Sources said that in the seventh century, the JVA has occupied some areas the Khmer who came as traders, sailors and marine soldiers.

During the 15th century world of relationships Malays and Cambodia increased from the economic and religious. Noisy traders and spreaders religion arrived in Cambodia. According to sources in Cambodia Malays, most Malays from Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Singapore, Trenggano and Patani. Even for a certain time chairmen Malays have been cooperating and helping each other with the Khmer kings.

Migration wave Campa society in Cambodia is after 1471 when Vietnam occupied Vijaya, the next wave after 1697 when Vietnam occupied Panduranga, and last because of the extraordinary ordeal in 1832. Campa Migration valid because Vietnanm escape destruction, while the migration of Malays of the archipelago occur because of trade and the spread of Islam. And two different ethnic origins are united in one religion namely Islam in a foreign country named Kampuchea. Both these rates because the fate of the equation, and religious equality, cooperation and mixed so that eventually gave birth to a new ethnic-Malays called Campa. By Khmer rulers of this society Campa Malays are welcome to stay in the territory Oudong (Khmer nregara mother at the time), the region Thbaung Khmum, Stung Trang and regions compote, Battambang and Kampong Luong today.

Community-Campa Malays form a special community that are recognized as "Cam-JVA". The word "JVA" derives from the word "Java" which is interpreted as all societies Cambodia society Malays from any origin. Perhaps they came from Java, Sumatra or elsewhere in the country and the Patani Malays Peninsula Land. The term "cam" refers to a resident who comes from an Campa kingdom in ancient times is situated in the middle of Vietnam today. Because both the community and Cam Malays embraced Islam and classified in the Austronesian linguistic group, the Khmer people classify them to the group of "Cam-JVA" or "Malayo-Campa."

In the year 1874 the population numbered 25 599 Malayo-Cam people. Ten percent of the population of Phnom Penh is a Malayo-Cam. In residential areas, Malayo-Campa we meet many Mosque and the mosque, as well as a place of religious education. Most Malays-Campa worked as cultivators, fishermen, cattle ranchers and peniaga reliable, humble as a party stooge other kingdoms from the village peringakat chumtup employees, mekhum, mesrok and chaway srok, there was also a humble even as the army and hold political office .

Proving that the Malays overall community-Cam has really feel Cambodia as a country by its own people, without exception, and has given his loyalty to Cambodia, including when the colonial French. Instead the government does not consider the Khmer-Cam Malays as immigrants and foreigners, but citizens are not indigenous, such as many other citizens.

Cambodia's independence from colonial France on 9 November 1953, under the head of state Norodom Sihanouk. But unfortunately people are not mentioned Malayo-Cam from the ethnic angle, ie the ethnic Malays-Cam, but called Khmer Islam, that popularized the term up to today.

Later minoriti groups are protected in the region Pays du Sud Montagards (PMS) that merangkumi Kontum, Pleiku, Ban Methuot, Djing and contained Dalat in South Vietnam, people considered to be entirely abolished and Vietnam. The same was experienced by the remnants minoriti Cam of Vietnam and the Khmer Krom (Khmer community living in South Vietnam). Therefore, community-Cam Malays in Cambodia tried to fight with the people of STDs in Vietnam and the Khmer Krom people, forming the so-called commitment FULRO (Front de Lutte des Races Unifie Oprimees or races Liberation Front Oppressed). FULRO combined merangkumi Front de Liberation du Champa (Campa Liberation Front), Front de Liberation du Kampuchea Krom (Kampuchea Krom Liberation Front) and the Front de Liberation du Nord Cambodia (Kampuchea Liberation Front North).

Expert FULRO power positions consist of President Chau Dara and two Naib President: Y. Bham Enoul (a parade of the Ban Methuot) and Po Nagar (a soldier who came from Kompong Kapuchea Cam, who identified with Islam among Les Kosem). Les Kosem a parachute jump Kapuchea army, which in 1970 was appointed general, he was a leader of the influential Mulayu-Cam in the armed forces and the Khmer politics. During the Lon Nol government, the fate of the Malayo-Cam somewhat better, because trust and various positions are given in the Malayo-Cam and FULRO. Les Kosem menyelesaiukan appointed a mediator in the internal conflicts Kapuchea Muslims and representatives to various Muslim countries. But after the fall of Cambodia into the hands of the Khmer Rouge, Les Kosem fled to Malaysia and died in Kuala Lumpur in 1976.

During the Pol Pot regime of the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979), Cambodia thousands of people have been killed because diseksa and believed in cooperation with the Lon Nol regime and for reasons of religion. As it is known that the Khmer Rouge are adherents of the radical teachings of Communism, and stymie freedom of religion. Cam-Malays who are Muslims feel the suffering of extremely heavy. Community Malayo-Cam and the Khmer Islam was forced to leave their religious traditions, names that have connotations of Islam, removed, Mosques and madrasas are not enabled or reduced in number, other religious customs abolished. Al-Qur'an and other religious readings destroyed. Culture in the form aktifiti-aktifiti, clothing, food and other Islamic accessories obliterated, including the names and religious mat.

On April 17, 1975, special forces, called the Khmer Rouge Angkar, has conducted sweeping searches and followed the torture of anyone they suspect after Lon Nol. On May 20, 1975, Pol Pot has been doing social discrimination based on political and religious choices, so that there are only two choices: "take or reject the Pol Pot Pol Pot." They are considered to reject the fate of Pol Pot's never happened in human history, namely large-scale massacres.

It is estimated that between one and three million people have been killed or died from lack of food, a million of them are Malays-Campa. And approximately six million others suffered severe trauma because of the fear that is very heavy. Muslims because of ideological and religious reasons and are "immigrants" are people suffering the most, they are forced apart by the fellow Muslims, or banished to the woods and mountains or for those who could have fled to the Foreign Affairs, most fled to Kelantan (Malaysia), Vietnam and Thailand as well as western countries.

Although Kher Rouge ruled only for four years, but the effect of cultural aspects, many Khmer people-Camp of Islam and Malays who already do not know his religion, not good at Arabic literacy and Campa. Pol Pot managed to scrape up and Go-Islamic identity of the Malays Campa Campa.

It was only after the fall of Pol Pot's regime and was ruled by Hun Sen and King Sihanouk, the community of Islam Melayu-Cam/Khmer back to feeling a little religious freedom. Mosques have started to be used again as well as madrassas. Islamic society is placed under the council that consists of six people appointed by the king. Cambodia Islamic Majlis (Maik) led by a Changvang (mufti), now held by Uztadz Yusof Kamarudin, assisted by two Assistant Mufti (now Uztadz Kadir Yusof and Uztadz Arsyad), equipped with a three-person Advisory (now YB Math Ly, YB Toll YB Loh and Ismail Osman). In each village there is a spiritual leader Hakim title. In the area of Trea (Kompong Cham) been formed Madrasa schools Hafiz al-Qur'an, followed Dubai Schools in MI 9 Pnomh Penh, Darul Aitam in Pochentong, Umm al-Kura in Chrouy Serkolah Metrei. Temple c. Rohimah Tambichik Madrasa in Nohor Ban and al-Muhammady Ma'had in Pruol Beng. Actually before Kher Rouge regime ruled Cambodia, many students continue their studies in Malaysia Cambodia, South Thailand, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

Currently solidarity of the international Islamic bodies, and Muslims among the nation has emerged, because the fate of Muslims in Cambodia are so pathetic. Natural Rabithah Islami in Mecca, the Conference of Islamic Countries (OIC) and others have been aware
channeling of assistance, ranging from sending manuscripts to aid Al-Quran Mosque rehabilitation and advocate (defense), the fate of the Muslims. Religious institutions, such as Jema'ah Tabligh and Darul Arqam and the Regional Islamic Da'wah Council of South East Asia And Pacific (RISEAP) from Malaysia to bring teachers and preachers / scholars as well as doing various requests silaturrahmi. Currently the village has been confirmed as 320 pieces of Islamic people, 110 of them located in Kompong Cham province, as well as its function has been restored and rehabilitated the building of 270 mosques and mosque, and 600 people dikikuhkan Master and Judge. Other provinces are also strong Islamic people of the province of Battambang and Kampot.

In Cambodia there were four united Islamic Ummah: ie the Islamic Samakum Kampuchea (Cambodia Islamic Union) under the leadership YB Math Ly. Khmer Kampuchea Samakum Islam (Unity of Islam Khmer Kampuchea) led by YB Wan Math. Islamic Samakun Anachakr Cambodia Preah Reach (Islamic Unity Kampouchea Kingdom) under the leadership of YB Ahmad Yahya, Islam, and Cham Samakum Kampuchea (Cambodia Islamic Unity Cam) chaired teacher named Teacher Zain who lived in Prek Pra. Second-two terms: the Khmer Islam and Cam are both accepted and used officially. Furthermore, there is also a foundation such as the Cambodian Muslim Development Foundation and the Islamic Development Community Combodian. And of course can not be overlooked is an organization of Muslim intellectuals Cambodia Cambodian Muslim Intellectual Alliance (CMIA), which organizes the event of our time.

The Islamic figures Cambodia renowned for its position close to pantadbiran include: YB Math Ly (parliamentary expert, timbalan Prime Minister and former Minister of Education). Onkha Othman Hassan (parliamentary expert, adviser to Prime Minister), YB Ahmad Yahya (Expert parliament), Ismail Yusoff HE (expert parliament), Ismail Osman YB (Expert timbalan parliament and ministers in the ministries It Ehwal Spirituality and Religion). YB Zakariyya Adam Osman (timbalan Minister in the Ministry of thing Ehwal Spirituality and Religion).

Cultural Relations Melayu Campa and Southeast Asia

As already mentioned, there are two ethnic blend in Cambodia, namely Malays-Cam. Kampuchea People called them the "Cam-JVA". The term "JVA", which comes from the word Java. While in Cambodia the term "JVA" was not meant only for people in Java, but all of the Malays or the Archipelago, including the Peninsula Land and Patani Malays. Medium "Cam", or derived from or ethnic Cham (the old kingdom) Campa.

If the Malays migrate from Tanah Melayu or the Archipelago, the man Cam massively displaced from their homeland in the central part of Vietnam now, and both of which happen to come from the same language family which is Austronesian, and later have the same religion, namely Islam , then both these ethnic quickly coalesce and give birth or ethnic Malays JVA-cam-Campa.

Although people can not membezakan Cambodia Malays, but from among the Malays themselves, divide the Malays into three categories: (1) The JVA Krabi (in written form Chhvea Krabei) shows the Malays who came from the island of Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau. Krapi in Cambodia means "buffalo", is expected to use the term of the JVA Krabi, because it supposedly was said long ago won over the Minangkabau buffalo buffalo brought from Java. (2) The JVA Ijava (Chhvea iava), that the Malays who came from Java. (3) The JVA Malay (chhvea Malayou), shows the Malays who came from developing countries and the Patani Malays Peninsula Land.

Hijrahnya the Malays of the archipelago, in the framework of trade or because their children are happy mngembara maritime sea off, predicted after the advent of Islam in the archipelago, so they come to bring Islam into Cambodia. Berlangsungabad immigration process was estimated to 13 and 14. The Malays have played a major role in the teaching of Islam in Cambodia. Khmer king often gives carpet to Islamic figures, like "Onkha To Koley", derived from Ukana To 'Cali. Koley derived from the word Kalih (Melayu language) or Kadi (Arabic for judge). Mat "Thy Reachea Onkha STI", is derived from King Ukana Mufti. Mufti (Arabic means giving fatwa), while "Onkha Reachea Peanich", derived from Ukana King Sampatti, Senopati (Java language, which means officers) who bertanggug responsibility in the field of commerce and economic development.

In the late 16th century, sources say there are two figures Khmer, Malayo-Cam, named Po, Rat or Cancona (derived from the Cam) and Lakshmana (the Malays), which I serve my king Ram (Ram of Joen Brai (1594 to 1596 ), both of them is known as the leader of a powerful army and powerful, and is believed to quell the rebellion and was escorted to lead various expeditions to various regions. As recompense, the King of Khmer endow their territory to make the Rabigh Thbaung as a place to live offspring and other Islamic societies.

By the 17th century, the Malays had to convert the king Khmer Ramadhipati I (cau Bana Cand) (1642-1658), Islam is estimated to enter the King Ramadhipati I was due to strong lobbying and influence of Islam in the palace, so that only a part of Islam, power is king can survive. King Ramadhipati I was the only Khmer king who converted to Islam until recent times.

To this end-time, Malaysia is a very enterprising Malays countries implement pengakajian Campa problem and its relation with the World Melayu, the assessment was conducted with the Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient, so the history of the Kingdom of Campa and its relation with the Malays, the curtain can be opened secret that sank with the loss of Campa's kingdom. And especially for Indonesia, actually Campa is the cultural sphere which has a special place - especially in the classical period, Majapahit and Sriwijaya era, in which cultural interaction region to region Campa - trade and cultural pertukarangan runs very intensive. Even in the old ceita, said that a beautiful princess named Gayatri Campa has dipersunting by the young king Singosari, found that the how the relationship has existed since long.

For the period before, need more diperkuatkan academic cooperation between Indonesia and Malaysia for old treasures menubuhkan excavation, assessment and Relationships Campa World Malayo-Malays, in terms of persepahaman world, within the framework of the cooperation of Muslims worldwide.